I must have a prodigious quantity of mind; it takes me as much as a week, sometimes, to make it up.
Barium Carbonate. Witherite.
CLASSIFICATION Barium, from Gr. barys, heavy, was distinguished from lime by the Swedish chemist Karl Scheele in 1774. Lavoisier included "baryte or barote" in 1789 in his list of "simple substances" as "Terre pesante" [heavy earth]. The English scientist Sir Humphrey Davy first isolated the element in 1808. It is found only in combination with other elements, mainly with sulphate [barite] and carbonate [witherite]. It belongs to group 2 [formerly group IIA] of the periodic table, called the alkaline earth group, and resembles calcium chemically. It is a soft metal with a silvery white lustre [like lead] when pure. Because it very easily oxidizes [turning black or greyish] it should be kept under petroleum or other oxygen-free liquids to exclude air. Water or alcohol decomposes barium. Barium minerals are dense, but barium itself is comparatively light.
USES Alloys of barium with aluminium [or magnesium] are used as getters in electron tubes [e.g. in television sets, computer monitors, X-ray tubes], where they perfect the vacuum by combining with the last traces of various gases, and thus prolong the life of the device. The screen of audio-visual equipment [television, computer, etc.] contains 4 to 10% barium carbonate to absorb roentgen rays arising in the electron tube. To achieve the same effect in colour televisions and colour [computer] monitors, the barium is combined with the even more active strontium. Barium protects by immobilizing and shielding. An alloy of barium with nickel is used in spark plugs and engine rod bearings. The carbonate is used in ceramics, paints, enamels, marble substitutes, rubber; for the manufacture of paper, barium salts, electrodes, optical glasses; as an analytical reagent; and as a rat poison and insecticide. Barite [barium sulphate] is used as an X-ray contrast medium [barium meal]; as a weighing agent in oilwell drilling fluids; for the manufacture of photographic papers, artificial ivory, cellophane; as a filler for rubber, linoleum, oil cloth, polymeric fibres and resins, lithographic inks; as a water-colour pigment for coloured paper, in wallpaper; as a size for modifying the colours of other pigments; in heavy concrete for radiation shield. 1 Barium powder is highly inflammable and may ignite spontaneously in air [at room temperature]. Various barium salts are employed in pyrotechnics [imparting a bright yellowish green colour to fireworks], signal flares [green], explosives, rocket propellant, matches, or as fireproofing agents.
EFFECTS Barium carbonate is almost insoluble in water. The compound is poisonous and may cause, in case of overexposure: salivation, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, violent diarrhoea; increased blood pressure; tinnitus, giddiness; muscle twitching, convulsions, paralysis; dilated pupils; confusion, somnolence; cardiac arrest; death due to respiratory failure. Acute poisoning is characterized by muscle weakness, followed by paralysis of the limbs and lungs, with additional heart problems. Victims usually remain conscious. Long term inhalation of barium dust may lead to deposition in the lungs, producing a form of pneumoconiosis called baritosis. Pneumoconiosis, or anthracotic tuberculosis, is characterized by pain in the chest, cough with little or no expectoration, despond, reduced thoracic excursion, sometimes cyanosis, and fatigue after slight exertion. 2 Fibrogenic forms of pneumoconiosis include silicosis [caused by silica dust], asbestosis, anthracosis [caused by coal dust], and berylliosis [caused by beryllium dust or fumes]. Nonfibrogenic forms are considered to be benign and include siderosis [caused by iron dust], stannosis [caused by tin dust], and baritosis. "Dr Wilson of London has lately described a distinct case of poisoning with the carbonate. The quantity taken was half a teacupful; but emetics were given, and operated before any symptoms showed themselves. In two hours the patient complained of dimness of sight, double vision, headache, tinnitus, and a sense of distension in the stomach, and subsequently of pains in the knees and cramps of the legs, with occasional vomiting and purging next day; for some days afterwards the head symptoms continued, though more mildly, and she was much subject to severe palpitations. Mr Parkes mentions that, according to information communicated to him by the proprietor of an estate in Lancashire, where carbonate of baryta abounds, many domestic animals on his estate died in consequence of licking the dust of the carbonate, and that it once proved to two persons, a woman and her child, who took each about a dram. Dr Johnstone says he once swallowed ten grains of this compound, without experiencing any bad effect."3
GROWTH Experimentally, retarded growth can be evoked in rats and guinea pigs by placing them on a barium-free diet. The same effect occurs with a strontium-free diet. Blood pressure increases significantly in rats exposed to 10 to 100 ppm barium in their drinking water. In humans there appears to be increased risk of cardiovascular disease if the drinking water contains barium levels of 1.1 to 10 mg per litre. Both barium and strontium belong to the alkaline earth group, which comprises furthermore beryllium, magnesium, calcium, and radium. Magnesium and calcium are important physiologic elements; strontium and barium are closely related to calcium, but are not known to have any physiologic function and thus are foreign to the body. "As a foreign substance barium produces poisonous and untoward effects much easier than the physiologic calcium. In experiments many similarities are shown to the action of excessive doses of calcium. The anti-swelling, solidifying and therefore slowing effect on exchange and function of calcium action is much greater in barium and leads sooner to persistent states of pathology."4 Soluble salts of barium are highly toxic and are used to control wide animals such as wolf, bear, etc.
ENVIRONMENT Barium gets into the air during the mining, refining and production of barium compounds, and from the burning of coal and oil. Barium compounds that dissolve easily are found in lakes, rivers, and streams. Fish and aquatic organisms accumulate barium. Most soils contain low levels of barium. Barium entering the body through the lungs seems to enter the bloodstream very easily, while it doesn't seem to enter the bloodstream as well from the stomach or intestines.
PHYSIOLOGY Seaweed, fish, and Brazil nuts contain the highest amounts of barium in foodstuff. Barium performs no known essential function in man, yet the average individual contains 22 mg of the mineral, most of which is in the bones. "In heart disease there is a decrease in barium levels in blood and serum with an increase in the injured heart muscle. Other disorders that decrease blood barium levels are duodenal ulcer, chronic cholecystitis, cancer of the liver and liver cirrhosis. Barium is poorly absorbed from conventional diets and little is retained in the body. A study of English diets found a daily intake between 400 and 900 mcg per day; in the USA intakes are similar at 750 mcg per day. Various other studies put the mean intake in general at 510 mcg per day. Barium levels in foodstuffs are associated usually with those of calcium and strontium. Vegetables and fruit can provide between 3 and 80 mcg per g dry weight but the richest sources by far are nuts. Brazil nuts contain between 700 and 3200 mcg per g but this was not accompanied by unusual levels of strontium."5
WITHERITE Witherite is an uncommon carbonate mineral. It belongs to the aragonite group of minerals, all of which can form twins. Twins are the result of an error during the growth of the crystal. The aragonite group has four members: aragonite [calcium carbonate], cerussite [lead carbonate], strontianite [strontium carbonate], and witherite. The latter always forms twins. Witherite effervesces in dilute HCl solutions. It also fluoresces light blue under both long and short-wave UV light and is phosphorescent under short-wave UV light. Notable occurrences include Cave-in-rock, Rosiclare, Illinois, USA; Alston Moor, Cumberland and Durham, England; Thunder Bay area, Ontario, Canada, and Germany. 6 It is used in casehardening steel and in refining sugar.
EXPERIMENTS "In the early part of the last century a series of very interesting experiments designed to demonstrate the effects produced upon a sensitive subject by the touch of precious stones and minerals, were made in the case of the 'Seeress of Prevorst', Frederike Hauffe [b. 1801], a woman believed to possess remarkable clairvoyant powers. When pieces of granite, porphyry, or flint were placed in her hand, she was not affected in any way. The finest qualities of fluorspar, on the other hand, had a marked action, relaxing the muscles, causing diarrhoea, and producing a sour taste in the mouth; occasionally a somnambulistic state was induced. This latter condition was also produced by Iceland spar and by the sapphire. While the substances so far noted depressed the vital energy, sulphate of barium stimulated the muscles, produced an agreeable warmth of the body, and made the subject feel as though she could fly through the air. If the application of this material was long continued, the pleasurable sensation found expression in laughter. In the case of witherite, a carbonate of barium, this effect was produced to an even greater degree, for if water in which this mineral had been dipped were swallowed, spasms of laughter resulted."7
GEMSTONE Barium minerals of gemstone quality are extremely rare. The only one known is benitoite. Benitoite - barium titanium silicate - was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century at San Benito, California. It has a unique crystal structure, unlike any other known mineral. It is called "stone of heaven" because of its sapphire blue colour. It is employed as a flirtation stone and as a stone to increase love between women.
PROVINGS ••  Hahnemann - 9 provers; method: unknown.
 Merckx Index.  Stedman's Medical Dictionary.  Christison, A Treatise on Poisons.  Leeser, Textbook of Hom. MM, Inorganic Medicinal Substances.  Mervyn, Vitamins and Minerals.  Amethyst Galleries, Inc. [website]  Kunz, The Curious Lore of Precious Stones.
NUTRITION. MIND. GLANDS [TONSILS; prostate]. HEART. Nerves. Blood vessels. Lungs.
Worse: Company. Thinking of symptoms. Cold [damp; to feet; to head; changes]. Lying on [painful part; left side]. Odours. After meals. Cold washing. Warm food. Sun [headache]. Near warm stove [headache]. Emotions. PRESSURE.
Better: Eructations. Warm wraps. When unmindful of his disease. Walking in open air. Being alone. Cold food.
c CALCAREA CARBONICA
"Calcarea carb. individuals are very protective of their independence from others, while Baryta carb. people tend to be dependent on others. Calcarea carb. people are not stymied by crippling irresolution, and they are powerful workers who are greatly ameliorated by their occupation. Baryta carb. people lack self-confidence and are rarely completely comfortable on the job."1
"Silica individuals exhibit a corporeal and emotional fragility that is not seen in Baryta carb. Baryta carb. people tend to form dependent relationships, while Sil. individuals often find themselves in the role of the caretaker. Sil. individuals may not express themselves openly and can appear timid in a group situation, but on the inside they know exactly how they feel. Baryta carb. people are truly confused about their own feelings and rarely form fully realized opinions."2
"Pulsatilla people can be flexible, spontaneous, and lively. They can be charming and emotionally expressive. Baryta people, on the other hand, have not developed agility in social settings. They can appear stiff and uncomfortable and are greatly stifled by their fear of people, men, and crowds. Pulsatilla people can act childlike in a delightful and engaging way; Baryta people more closely resemble a child who is a painfully shy and awkward wallflower."3
"Bufo individuals can display a form a feeble-mindedness or imbecility that suggests mental deficit. Baryta people can have mental confusion, but they do not typically exhibit the mental dulness that is characteristic of Bufo. Baryta individuals are frozen in a state of childlike emotional arrest. They are timid and not outgoing. In contrast, Bufo people can be gregarious and confrontational. They are not afraid of crowds or people and often enjoy performing in front of others. Their sexual drive is typically high. They can be violent or destructive."4
c COMMON SYMPTOMS OF GROUP 2 [Mag-c.; Calc.; Bar-c.; Stront-c.]*
Fear of evil. - Easily frightened. - Laziness / indolence. - Inclination to sit. - Starting on going to sleep and during sleep. - Vertigo during headache and/or with nausea. - Occipital headache, as if occiput is pressed inward. - Shaking sensation in head. - Uncovering head <. - Black spots before the eyes. - Exertion of vision <. - Epistaxis from blowing nose. - Thirst; extreme. - Delayed menarche. - Pain in lumbar region while sitting. - Cold feet in evening. - Disturbed sleep from anxiety. - Dreams of fire. - Chilliness in bed. - Aversion to [cold] bathing. - After breakfast >. - Winter <. - Dry weather >.
1-4 1 Karen Cohen, Paradoxical Facets of an Underprescribed Polychrest, IFH 1995.
* Beryllium and Radium are excluded because both are [chemically] atypical for group 2. Beryllium is closer related to Aluminium than to the alkaline-earth metals; Radium should be considered in connection with other radioactive elements such as Uranium and Plutonium.
M Children and old age: beginning and end of life.
c Children: retarded or defective mental or physical development ["dwarfish in body and mind"; LATE IN LEARNING TO WALK, TALK AND READ], enlarged glands, scrofulous ophthalmia, chronic tonsillitis and adenoids.
Suitable for children because of Baryta's relationship to the lymphatic system.
Children do not want to play; hide behind mother or furniture in presence of visitors.
c Old people - often resulting from CVA - lose their memory, start to act thoughtlessly and foolishly.
Suitable for old people because of Baryta's correspondence to arteriosclerosis.
M Physical and mental functions diminished.
SLOW, INEPT and BACKWARD.
SLOW comprehension, slow in acting, slow movements.
M BASHFUL TIMIDITY; aversion to and aggravation by presence of STRANGERS.
M Idea of being laughed at, talked about, watched or mocked.
• "She suspected, that when walking in the street, men found fault with her, and judged her amiss, which made her anxious, so that she dared not look up, she looked at nobody, and perspired all over." [Hahnemann]
M Feeling of security in the house.
[Older Bar-c. children always take their mother or someone else they trust with them. They feel UNPROTECTED and want to stay in the home.]
M Enormous LACK OF SELF-CONFIDENCE and strong IRRESOLUTION [about trifles, in acts].
• "The greatest irresolution; he proposes to himself a brief journey, and as soon as he is to make his preparation, he is sorry for it, and prefers to stay at home."
• "During the day she determines to attend to some particular matter; but scarcely has the time come, when she is sorry for it, and she knows not for irresolution what to do or to leave undone."
• "Long wavering between opposing resolutions." [Hahnemann]
c May be compensated by forming a rigid set of routines and habits, to prevent having to make little decisions all day long. 1
M Strong feeling of incompetence or being ugly.
• "Instead of just wanting to look desirable, as is seen in the first stage of pathology, the insecurity about their body image may become an obsession over their weight and appearance, leading to anorexia. Or they may spend inordinate amounts of time and money to become as beautiful and perfect as possible. ... I've had quite a number of Baryta carbonica patients whose main problem was anorexia. They just refuse to eat because they have such a poor image of their bodies. They will do almost anything if they think it will make the body look better. They won't eat. They will spend incredible amounts of money on clothing or on all kinds of facial surgery. It can become an absolute obsession to look good."2
• "Jealousy, related to feelings of inefficiency, which become somatized by frequent colds, enuresis, regression in toilet training, or especially nervous biting of the finger nails." [Morrison]
M Early responsibility.
• "In Baryta people the problem seems to lie in learning their jobs and taking on responsibility and becoming useful. At this point they somehow seem blocked and feel a tremendous sense of incapacity, a feeling of being handicapped, as if he is unable to stand on his own feet [delusion legs are cut off]. It seems as if there is a tremendous need to become much older than they are, to take up responsibility in life very early. In a failed state they become imbecile, irresolute, totally dependent, and childish. One can see the bashfulness of Baryta with its infantile dependence; naivety; much anxiety, esp. brought on by loss of someone who was supporting him. This is the failed side of the Baryta person. Most Baryta I see, however, present quite the opposite picture. These are people who take on responsibilities in life quite early and fulfil them, who support others in a big way. They are conscientious and anxious for others [rubric: anxiety about domestic affairs]. They are homemakers and develop signs of premature senility - hypertension, early baldness. The responsibility along with their conscientious nature can remind one of Aurum, which lies in the same period as Barium." [Sankaran]
• "Apart from shyness and fear of ridicule, other childish fears are commonly seen, including fear of ghosts [in adults], fear of travelling far from home, and fear of loud noises." [Bailey]
Can't handle complexities. Need structure, rules and routine.
May do well in practical occupations.
M Mental retardation after acute illnesses, like measles, typhoid, mumps, scarlet fever, etc.
G Tardiness of development of organs; a single organ fails to mature [e.g. genital organs too small].
G WEAKNESS after EATING.
• "With the enlarged abdominal glands is linked the fact that the child stands badly, there is often marked lordosis and a very prominent abdomen. With the abdominal condition is the symptom that the Bar-c. child is usually worse after eating - more inattentive, more irritable, more touchy, and very often more tired after eating." [Borland]
G Low energy; easily tired.
• "A short walk fatigues him very much; he is obliged to sleep soon afterwards." [Hahnemann]
But also: • "Walking in the open air is difficult for him; but the farther he walks the easier it becomes." [Hahnemann]
This is connected with the "trembling through the whole body, in morning on rising." [Hahnemann]
Constantly weak and weary, wishes to lean on something, to sit or lie down and still feels weak and weary.
G Great SENSITIVITY TO COLD air and susceptibility to catching cold.
Chilly persons. < FEET becoming COLD. Catching cold = soreness of throat, stiffness of nape of neck, diarrhoea. G Sensation of HEAT on WAKING [at night]. G ORGASM of BLOOD when lying on LEFT side. G Aversion to fruit. G Disturbed sleep. Awakens at night with heat and bruised sensation in the soles of the feet, > rising.
G Many symptoms arise when sitting, are better when standing, and disappear on motion.
When sitting = confusion of head, pinching around navel, sticking in lumbar region, burning in bend of thigh, tension in legs, crawling in left calf, restless feeling in feet, weakness in spine. [Allen]
G ENLARGED GLANDS, esp. of external throat.
G Numbness upper half of body.
P Rush of blood to head.
And Feeling as if the blood stagnated there.
P Chronic enlarged tonsils with frequent inflammation [from the least cold] and tendency to suppuration, together with swollen maxillary glands which get inflamed easily.
Chronic tonsillitis and hardness of hearing.
Feeling of plug in throat. Can only swallow fluids. Empty swallowing <. And Suppurative otitis media. P Offensive FOOT SWEAT [skin of toes excoriated; destruction of shoes]. Throat affections after checked foot sweat.  Cohen, Paradoxical Facets of an Underprescribed Polychrest, IFH 1995.  Olsen, The Breakdown State of Baryta Carbonica, IFH 1993. Rubrics Mind Absentminded when spoken to . Ailments from embarrassment . Loss of ambition . Aversion to amusement . Antagonism with herself . Anxiety evening in bed, must uncover , while lying on left side . Awkward from bashfulness . Carefulness . Childish behaviour . Delusions, body looks ugly , that she is critized , being laughed at and mocked at , is going to be robbed , body is smaller , he cannot succeed, he does everything wrong , being watched . Fear of men , from noise at night , of people, in children , of railroad travel , of strangers . Desire to hide, child thinks all visitors laugh at it and hides behind furniture [2/1]. Irresolution in acts , in projects , about trifles . Aversion to laughing . Loquacity during menses , during pregnancy [2/1]. Neglecting everything . Desire to nibble [1; Mag-m.; Nat-c.]. Indisposition to play, in children . Sensitive to noise, male voices . Spoiled children . Time passes too slowly . Vertigo At night in bed . From sneezing . When walking along a narrow path [1/1], when walking over a narrow bridge [1; Ferr.; Sulph.]. Head Coldness, begins in head . Pain, pressing, vertex, while standing in sun [2/1]. Shaking sensation while sneezing [1/1], on stamping [1/1]. Vision Foggy, morning , after eating . Sparks, in dark . Ear Noises, > while lying , on sneezing , while walking fast [1/1].
Acute, for male voices [1; Nit-ac.]. Impaired, and hypertrophy of tonsils .
Bloated before menses .
Pain, before menses , during menses , when thinking about it .
Sensation as if food lodged in oesophagus ; as if food turns like a corkscrew on swallowing and passes over raw places in oesophagus [1/1].
Sensation as if a ball is moving up and down during eructations [1/1]. Sensation of fulness after eating ever so little . Pain, burning, > motion [1*].
As if intestines were falling from side to side on turning in bed .
Urging to urinate after eating , > sitting [1; Canth.].
Palpitation > eructations [1; Carb-v.], sudden , from thinking of it .
Heaviness of hands before menses , of feet before menses .
Sleeplessness, from thoughts, always the same thought ..
After excitement . In the presence of strangers .
Part of body becoming cold < . Sensation of heat on waking . Numbness of part lain on . * Repertory addition [Allen]. Food Aversion: : Bananas; fruit; plums; sweets. Desire: : Alcohol; sweets. Worse: : Alcohol.  Bread; hot drinks; warm food.: Cold food; milk. Better: : Cold food.