Showing posts from September, 2012

Lime water FEEDING children

- Benson.A.R, Lime water In the formulas herein given lime water is not included. If fresh, pure milk is used, and care in preparation, lime water is almost never required. When it is needed, it should be given under a physician's direction and not indiscriminately. Its use was originally based upon the supposition that cow's milk was acid, and this we now know is not so. In the large quantities which were formerly given, lime water caused over-secretion of the acid of the stomach and is no doubt responsible for many cases of indigestion in older children and adults. Mothers are too apt to resort to lime water in the the food when there is slight sourness or regurgitation, forgetting that the normal reaction of the stomach contents is acid, and that the true remedy lies in a change of food to one which is more easily digested. If babies are started on formulas without lime water, it is very rarely necessary to use it, but if they once become accustomed to it, it is di

Pasteurization and sterilization

- Benson.A.R, Pasteurization and sterilization The question of pasteurization and sterilization has received a great deal of attention at the hands of medical and other authorities. Of the two methods, pasteurization is the least harmful, but the fact remains that milk which has been subjected to any temperature sufficient to destroy disease germs is so changed that its effect is quite different from that of fresh milk. The ideal to be attained is a supply of clean, pure, fresh, cow's milk. This is easily procured in the country and in small cities, and in cities like New York it is to be had at a slight additional expense from certified dairies. The general use of the process of pasteurization would tend to promote carelessness in the care and handling of milk by dairymen, and for this reason it is to be discouraged. When the baby's health is to be considered it is little short of criminal negligence to substitute pasteurized milk or sterilized milk for certified milk b

Peptonized milk

- Benson A.R Peptonized milk Peptonized milk is milk in which the proteids (curds) have been partially or entirely pre-digested. It is accomplished by the addition of peptonizing powders to the milk. These powders contain Pancreatic extract and Sodium bi-carbonate. One powder is dissolved in a quart bottle of plain or diluted milk; the bottle is immersed in water at 110° Fahrenheit and allowed to remain there ten to twenty minutes if partial peptonization is desired, or for two hours if it is to be completely peptonized. The process of peptonization is checked by heating the milk to the boiling point. The preparation known as peptogenic milk powder (Fairchild's) is a convenient one for peptonizing milk. Peptonized milk is often necessary for babies who are sick, or premature infants that have weak digestive powers. It should only be resorted to under a physician's direction. It is not advisable to use it for a long period of time, because it does not stimulate and devel

Infants foods

- Benson A.R Infants foods There is no infant's food except modified cow's milk which can be used continually with any degree of success. Nearly all proprietary foods are simply cereals and owe most of their efficacy to the milk which is mixed with them in preparing. They have the great disadvantage of containing an excessive amount of sugar. This produces fat so that the baby gains rapidly in weight, but this is too often at the expense of bone and muscle. The same is true of condensed milk. Any one of these preparations may be useful during an illness or for a short time, but they should never be used for a long time. Many cases of scurvy and rickets are due to the prolonged use of condensed milk and proprietary foods, and infants which have been fed on these preparations lack to a marked degree the resistive power necessary to overcome disease.

Travelling and childcare

- Benson A.R Travelling and childcare It sometimes happens that it becomes necessary to take long journeys with young infants under such circumstances that it is not possible to carry a sufficient supply of milk to prepare fresh food. Usually a day's supply of food can be prepared before starting and the nursing bottles packed in a pail of ice. When these are exhausted, condensed milk, properly diluted, should be used. There is much less danger in using condensed milk for a short time than in depending upon the fresh milk provided en route. The excitement of a journey may cause indigestion and it is best at such times to give less food than usual. It is also wise to provide a supply of some bottled spring water instead of depending upon the water obtained en route.

General directions for artificial feeding :The formulas given here are intended for average healthy babies.

- Benson A.R artificial feeding The formulas given here are intended for average healthy babies. In case the baby does not thrive on these formulas, it is necessary to make a change and a physician should be consulted. It is always best to underfeed rather than to overfeed at the beginning, and radical changes in the formulas should not be made. The change from one formula to another should be gradual, and this is best accomplished by adding each day or every other day to the mixture one more teaspoonful of top milk of the required strength and taking away one teaspoonful of water. This may be regulated to suit the demands of the baby so the change may be made quickly or slowly. If the baby seems hungry, cries after nursing, or does not sleep, the formula should be strengthened in quality. The constituents of the formula and the quantity of the nursing should never be increased at the same time. The food should not be increased if the child seems satisfied, sleeps well, and i

Stools in case of Children

- Benson A.R Normal stools are soft, yellow, and occur from one to three times a day. If the stools become loose, green, or contain undigested curds, the formula must be changed and the infant must receive medical attention. This is especially important if the stools are accompanied by colic and vomiting. These conditions appearing in hot weather are alarming and must not be neglected. Temporarily all milk should be withdrawn and barley water used instead. Constipation is more common in artificially fed infants than in breast fed. It is due to different causes but need not cause alarm, provided there is one movement daily. In the majority of cases it is necessary to make a change in the formula. It is sometimes helped by substituting one tablespoonful of brown sugar for one tablespoonful of the milk sugar in the formula. Often the addition of a few ounces of oatmeal water in the formula in place of the same number of ounces of boiled water or barley water is sufficient for a cure

Feeding from the twelfth to the eighteenth month ,Feeding from the eighteenth month to the end of the fourth year

- Benson A.R Feeding from the twelfth to the eighteenth month By the thirteenth or fourteenth month the baby will usually take cereals in addition to milk. Barley, farina, or oatmeal, in the form of a thick gruel, strained, can be given. Crackers or zwieback, soft boiled eggs and beef juice may be added gradually to the dietary during this period. The food should be divided into about five meals daily. Feeding from the eighteenth month to the end of the fourth year Five meals should be given in the 24 hours, consisting of milk, soft boiled eggs, soup or beef juice, vegetables, cereals, meat in small quantities. The general outline of the dietary is as follows : Breakfast : Juice of an orange, baked apple or apple sauce, cereal, glass of milk, bread or crackers. 10.30 A.M. : Glass of milk and zwieback or toast. Dinner, 1 P.M. : Soup, meat (beef, lamb, chicken or fish, not more than 2 ounces), simply cooked vegetables, stewed fruit. 4 P.M. : Glass of milk or cocoa, and toast

Articles forbidden in case of Childcare

- Benson A.R The following articles should not be given to children under four years : Meats : Sausage, pork, game of all kinds, kidney, liver, or meat served with rich gravies. Vegetables : Green corn, cucumbers, raw tomatoes. Desserts : Pies, tarts, cake and pastries of all kinds. Fruits : Bananas should be avoided except in small quantities, thoroughly mashed through a sieve and served with cream. The habit of allowing children to eat their meals at the table with the rest of the family is a bad one, as there is constant temptation for them to eat improper food. The child's likes and dislikes should be consulted to a certain extent, but it should not be allowed to become dainty and wilful about food. It is not always easy to steer a rational middle course, but if the child is taught from the start to eat milk and eggs freely, the larger part of the problem will be solved. Even if the strongest discipline is necessary to accomplish this, it is well worth while, and it ma

Special recipes in case of Children care

Special recipes - Benson A.R Beef juice Select a piece of meat from the rump or upper part of the round. Broil or warm slightly for one or two minutes, and squeeze the juice into a slightly warmed cup. Add salt if necessary and serve at once. Prepare only enough to serve as it does not keep well. Broths - mutton, chicken or beef Wipe meat, remove fat and skin and cut into small pieces. Put in kettle with bones and add one cup of cold water, and let it stand half an hour to extract the juices. Heat gradually to the boiling point, season with 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, and let it simmer for two hours until the meat is tender. Remove the fat and strain through a coarse sieve. Three tablespoonfuls of rice or barley may be added if desired. Soak barley over night, add to broth and cook until grains are tender. If the broth is made the day before it is to be used, it can be cooled thoroughly and the fat easily removed. Boiled egg A fresh egg is placed in boiling water in a covered

General signs of disease

- Benson A.R Acute diseases Vomiting : In a large majority of cases, serious illness in infants and children is ushered in by vomiting. This symptom takes the place of the chill, which so often marks the onset of disease in adults. It is not always easy to tell, at first, whether the attack of vomiting indicates the beginning of a serious illness or is due to acute indigestion. In the latter case it is usually possible to trace the attack to some indiscretion of diet, and these sudden attacks of indigestion are likely to be relieved within a few hours after the stomach is emptied. In the onset of more serious diseases, however, although the vomiting may cease, the general condition of the child does not improve and the temperature remains high. Temperature : The temperature should be taken in the rectum or the fold of the groin, the thermometer remaining in place for two minutes. In selecting a thermometer for use with children, one made of heavy glass is preferable. In taking the

The following list of homoeopathic remedies is recommended for use in the nursery

- Benson A.R The following list of homoeopathic remedies is recommended for use in the nursery : Aconite 3x, Arsenicum 6x, Belladonna 6x, Bryonia 6x, Calcarea carb. 30x, Chamomilla 3x, Cuprum met. 12x, Ipecac 6x, Nux vomica 6x, Spongia 3x. For external use : Homoeopathic tincture of Calendula, homoeopathic tincture of Arnica. These remedies may be procured in the proper strength at a homoeopathic pharmacy. They should be kept tightly corked in a case, and should never be allowed to remain open. Those for internal use should be in the form of medicated pellets. Unless otherwise directed, they should be administered by dissolving 6 pellets in half a glass of cold water (preferably distilled or pure spring water) and given to the patient, one teaspoonful every one-half to two hours, according to the severity of the attack. It is usually wise to give the first four doses at frequent intervals (every half hour), and, as the patient improves, to diminish the frequency of the dose to e


- Benson A.R Nursing The fundamental principle in nursing a child during illness is absolute and complete rest. This means not only that the child should be kept at rest in bed, but that the digestive organs should be rested also by the lightest possible diet. Older children should be kept on milk, and with artificially fed infants, the food should be diluted at least one-half. Children should never be urged to eat if there is no desire for food. A few hours' fasting at the beginning of an illness does no harm and will often allow an irritable stomach to become rested. The room should be well ventilated, quiet and not too light. It is always wise to be prepared for contagious diseases, and in cases which are suspicious, and in which the diagnosis has not been established, it is better to isolate the patient from the other members of the family. For the same reason it is better to remove from the sick room, all articles which cannot be easily disinfected. The general rules p

Hot and cold applications for Children

- Benson A.R In applying either heat or cold, it is necessary to apply it continuously, changing the cloths frequently, never allowing the compresses to reach body heat. Cloths wrung out of ice water may be laid on the forehead when there is high temperature. They must be changed at least every five minutes or oftener if necessary. The cloth should not be allowed to remain on the head and become warm, and if for any reason the cold cannot be continued, the compress should be taken off altogether. The same applies to cold compresses on the throat. These should be placed under the chin, passing up to the ear, on either side, and held in place by a flannel covering which is fastened securely at the top of the head. Applications of this sort are more effective than those which pass around the neck. Cold compresses are sometimes prescribed for the chest. Several layers of cotton cloth are so cut that they pass around the chest, back and front, passing under the arms and coming well up

Baths in case of Children

- BensoN A.R. Hot Foot Bath : It is sometimes desirable to place the child's feet in a hot foot bath. A small flat bottomed tub is used and is placed under the bed clothes; the child's feet are immersed up to the ankles, the child lying on its back. A teaspoonful of dry mustard may be added to this bath if desired. Temperature Baths : Sponge baths are frequently ordered for children where there is high fever. It is best to use one part of alcohol to six parts of water. Sponge rapidly over the part, for example, one limb, and then either dry with a soft towel without friction or allow the limb to remain exposed while the water evaporates. Evaporation may be hastened by gentle fanning. The limb is then covered and the process repeated with the other limbs, the back, the chest, exposing only one part at a time. Such baths should be given between blankets. Unless specially ordered the water should never be colder than 70°. Cleansing Baths : These should be given in the same wa

Diseases of the alimentary canal

- Benson A.R  Diseases of the alimentary canal  SORE MOUTH (Sprue, Stomatitis, etc.) : In a large majority of cases, sore mouth is caused by a lack of cleanliness in the care of the bottle or the nipple, or by too vigorous cleansing of the infant's mouth. The disease is characterized by small white spots on the child's tongue, or on the inside of the cheeks and lips. These spots sometimes bleed. They are painful and if neglected go on to ulceration. If taken at the start, they can usually be cured by hygienic measures alone. Scrupulous care in cleansing the bottles and nipples as previously directed (see page 72) is necessary. The nipples must be changed if too large or too hard, and after each feeding the mouth must be rinsed with warm water, using a soft cloth, and not the finger, for the purpose. The disease is more likely to be present in poorly nourished infants. It may be prevented by the measures mentioned and by keeping the infant in good physical condition.

Intestinal parasites (worms)

- Benson A.R. Intestinal parasites The intestinal canal of children is very frequently infected with parasites. They are usually pin worms, round worms or tape worms. We can only be certain of their presence when they are seen in the stool. The general symptoms indicating worms are grinding of the teeth at night, picking the nose and lips, flushing of the face, especially at night, with fever, and difficulties of digestion usually with constipation. Bed wetting is common and milky colored urine is sometimes seen. There is often intense itching of the region around the anus. These symptoms, however, may arise from other causes and should not be attributed to the presence of worms unless they are seen in the stools. Treatment : As pin worms exist mostly in the large intestine, they can usually be relieved by the use of enemas. Warm salt enemas (a teaspoonful of salt to a pint of water) may be used at night before going to bed. These enemas cause discomfort to some children, and i

Contagious diseases

- Benson A.R. Contagious diseases General Directions : The patient must be isolated in a light airy room, from which all members of the family are excluded except those nursing the patient. The nurses must not come in contact with any other members of the family except when off duty, and then only with the adults. Great care must be used to exclude domestic pets from the room. The temperature of the room should be about 68° All the dishes used in the sick room by the patient and the nurse must be kept exclusively for them, and must be sterilized before being used by anyone else. Before going off duty, the nurse must change all her garments, including her shoes, and must scrub her hands in hot water and soap and sterilize them in alcohol. Her hair must also be sterilized in alcohol. A basin of alcohol must be kept near the bed and the hands rinsed after contact with the patient. Thermometers must be sterilized in alcohol. All the bed linen's and the patient's garments


-Benson.A.R, Diphtheria Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by a specific germ known as the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus. Its onset is usually sudden. There is vomiting, moderately high temperature (101 - 102°), rapid weak pulse, pain in the back and limbs, and chilliness. The breathing is rough, there is sometimes a slight hacking cough, an offensive odor to the breath, and enlargement of the glands of the neck. There may be slight pain on swallowing, and after 12 or 24 hours a white or greyish membrane appears in the throat, usually upon the tonsils. This membrane spreads upward, partially covering the soft palate and the posterior part of the roof of the mouth. During the early stages, the disease cannot be distinguished from tonsillitis and other infectious diseases except by an examination of a culture from the throat. Such a culture should be made in all cases of sore throat. The diseases progresses very rapidly and in two or three days the throat may be so fill

Scarlet fever (scarlatina)

- Benson.A.R, Scarlet fever Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease, the specific cause of which has not yet been determined. It resembles tonsillitis and diphtheria in its onset. The temperature is high (104° - 1041/2°). There is nearly always vomiting at first, and the pulse is rapid. The child feels very sick and complains of a sore throat, and the skin is hot and dry. The throat when examined appears to be bright red, and often fine pin-points spots, slightly darker than the surrounding mucous membrane, may be detected. These spots are the same as those which later appear on the surface of the skin. The skin eruption is usually seen in 48 hours after the onset of the disease. It appears first on the face and spreads rapidly over the whole body. The rash, however, sometimes disappears so rapidly from the face that it will not be detected, and it is always wise to examine the body carefully. The rash consists of bright red dots on the skin, so close together that they ar

Measles (rubeola)

- Benson.A.R, Measles The onset of measles is decidedly different from that of the diseases just described. The first symptoms to be noticed are a discharge from the nose, usually attributed to a cold, and soreness and inflammation of the eyes. There is a slight rise of temperature (101° - 102°), and a dry, troublesome cough. Headache is sometimes present, but rarely vomiting. The child is almost invariably cross and irritable, and cries at the slightest provocation. During this time the throat, if examined, appears dark red and congested. Sometimes small white dots with a dark bluish base (Koplik's spots) may be detected on the inside of the cheeks if examination is made for them in the daylight. About four days after the first symptoms are noted the skin eruption appears. It is apt to be seen first upon the chest and spreads rapidly over the whole body, the temperature increasing until the rash is fully developed. The rash is dark red, almost coppery in appearance, and th

German measles (rötheln, rubella)

- BENSON A.R German measles German measles is a disease which resembles very closely true measles, but is usually much milder in character. Its onset is more often characterized by sore throat than is true measles, and there is usually enlargement of the glands of the neck. The eruption is somewhat like that of scarlet fever, but the red spots appear first on the chest and face and spread rapidly over the body, and are larger than the pin point spots of scarlet fever. The eruption disappears more quickly than in true measles, and the disease is not as likely to be accompanied by the severe cough which occurs in measles. The temperature is rarely above 101°, and the disease has no serious after effects. It is chiefly of interest on account of its resemblance to true measles, and it is usually difficult to distinguish between the two. Nursing : The management and treatment of German measles is the same as that for a mild attack of ordinary measles.

Mumps (epidemic parotitis) in Children

- BENSON A.R  Mumps  Mumps is an infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the parotid glands. These glands secrete saliva and are located on either side of the neck under the jaw. The germ causing this disease has not yet been discovered. At the beginning there is usually slight chilliness, headache and slight rise of temperature (99° - 100°), with stiffness, and soreness of the neck on one or both sides. There is also tenderness, and pain in this region when sour things are tasted. The neck becomes swollen; it is smooth and hard, and tender to the touch. The swelling extends backwards so that the ear occupies about the center of the enlarged part. Both sides may be affected at the same time, or the disease may come on one side and later extend to the other. Its duration is from four to ten days. Nursing : The disease is not a serious one if uncomplicated, but great care should be taken to prevent the child from taking cold, or undue exercise. During the acute st

Chicken-pox (varicella) in Children

- BENSON A.R  Chicken-pox  Chicken-pox is a mild infectious disease, beginning with a slight rise in temperature (99° - 100°), loss of appetite, and general languor. The eruption appears first on the back and consists of small red spots. These spots may be widely separated. There may be only four or five on the whole back. Small water blisters soon form on the top of these red spots and in a day or two these blisters become black and dry up. These spots are found on other parts of the body, but generally they are widely scattered. The disease runs its course in three days to a week, and generally the child is not ill enough to remain in bed. Chicken-pox has no serious complications or after effects; very severe cases may resemble small-pox somewhat, but such cases are rare. Nursing : The child should be kept quiet and fed on a light diet. Great care should be taken to prevent rubbing or scratching of the eruption. The skin may be kept well covered with vaseline, and wher

Asking the right questions is important in homoeopathic clinical research

Identifying the ‘right’ questions for clinical research in homoeopathy requires optimally defined objective. According to the author of this paper, in the current scenario, the main focus homoeopathic clinical research must be on randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Because, despite reservations about their application to homoeopathy research in the past, they are the only available way to prove cause and effect of an intervention. Many commentators, however, have failed to distinguish between the findings of placebo and other-than-placebo (OTP) controlled trials, while the individualised style of the normal homoeopathic intervention and the main effects anticipated from that intervention have not always been properly reflected. Thus, the interpretation of findings in terms of ‘efficacy’ or ‘effectiveness’ of the intervention is often unclear. Our method of ‘vote counting’ the results of RCTs in homoeopathy has enabled a clear categorisation of the research evidence, together with an

Evaluation of homoeopathic treatments in early lactation in buffalo cows and neonatal mortality in buffalo calf – a report

This trial was conducted in Italy on thirty buffalo cows subdivided in three groups. In the immediate pre-calving, 2.5 ml of Echinacea purpurea (mother tincture) was orally administered to the first group (A) and, after calving, Nux vomica (30CH), Chelidonium (30CH) and Lycopodium (potency not declared) were administered at 7 days intervals. The second group (B) was only subjected to the post-calving treatment, while the third group (C) represented the control group. Immediately after calving two groups of calves were formed. The first group received 5 granules of Pyrogenium in the first days of life and then for 10 days the 0.5 ml of E. purpurea. The second group did not receive any remedy. Before the calving, in conventional farm twenty buffalo cows (D group) were vaccinated. Remedies administration did not affect milk protein content, milk lipid con- tents and the achievement of the lactation peak. Blood samples showed that total protein, albumin and globulin levels were lower in g

A Review of Use of Enantiomers in Homoeopathy

This paper of our interest has been published in the journal International Scholarly Research Network (ISRN) Toxicology recently. It reviews the publications of laboratory experiments using pairs of enantiomers (either one of a pair of compounds (crystals or molecules) that are mirror images on each other but are not identical) in homoeopathy. Many molecules in nature have geometrical shape which enables them to exist as nonsuperimposable mirror images or enantiomers. Modulation of toxicity of such molecules provides possibility for therapeutics, since they target multiple points in biochemical pathways. It was hypothesized that toxicity of a chemical agent could be counteracted by a homoeopathic preparation of the enantiomer of the chemical agent (patents applied for: PCT/AU2003/000219-PCT/AU2008/001611). A diverse body of data, including controlled laboratory studies, supports the conclusion that toxicity of optical isomers may be inhibited by homoeopathic enantiomer preparations.

Luffa operculata - Mother tincture

Luffa operculata It is known botanically as Luffa purgans Mart, Luffa operculata Linn. Cogn., Momordica operculata Linn or Poppia operculata M. Roem. This species is commercially not available in India. It is found in Southern part of North America or Northern part of South America and especially in Columbia. A homoeopathic tincture is made from the fruits with about 65% of alcohol1. It is an official drug of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India2 and Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of United States3. In common language it is called by the locals “Espongilla”. It was introduced in Europe by Dr. Willmar Schwabe who also carried the proving of the medicine. It was read as scientific paper at International Homoeopathic Congress in 1962 by Dr. Schwabe and Dr. Stubes. Clinical results on over 600 cases were compiled by Ingo Kulinke. It is a constituent of well-known Luffa complexes and longenzes for allergic respiratory and throat problems used worldwide for decades4. Briefly the indica

Coriandrum sativum - Proving

Coriandrum sativum It is a culinary and house hold remedy in India. Commonly known as coriander, it is strongly aromatic. In Indian medicine, it is considered as a stimulant, carminative and stomachic (digestive), diuretic and aphrodisiac. It is a gentle remedy for flatulence, bloating and gripping. Observing its medicinal properties as an herb, Dr. V. T. Augustine had introduced this drug to homoeopathy by publishing his observations in Hahnemannian Gleanings. The present proving was conducted by Louis Klein and Toni Bark with 9 provers. Mind Feeling good and relaxed. Mistakes due to forgetfulness and confusion. Head Headache with foggy feeling; behind the eyes, frontal region, and changing location. Nose Stuffy and congested nose. Soreness and redness in the nostrils. Face Rashes especially on the chin and left side. Cracked lips. Dry lips with peeling of skin. Mouth Raw, soreness and swelling in the inside of mouth. Throat Sore throat with running nose, phlegm f