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Monday, September 20, 2010

Nosodes And Sarcodes Origin And Sources Of Homoeopathic Medicines

Posted by Drdevendra Kumar MD Homeo

Nosodes and Sarcodes Origin and Sources, Difference between Nosode and Sarcodes in Homeopathy given by Sumit Goel:

NOSODES IN HOMEOPATHY:


Homoeopathic preparations from pure microbial culture obtained from diseased tissue and clinical materials (secretions, discharges, etc.) are known as NOSODES in Homeopathy. The term 'nosode' is derived from the Greek word "nosos" meaning disease.

An attempt has been made to provide standard guidelines regarding the identification, classification and method of preparation of nosodes in Homeopathy. These are included in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India (H.P.I.), fourth volume.

Nosodes are processed from original stock built from isolated microbes, diseased tissues and clinical materials from which the primary stocks are prepared. Depending upon the nature of material used, nosodes in Homeopathy may be divided into the following four groups: -

N-I - Preparations made from lysates of microorganisms capable of producing bacterial endotoxins

E.g. Typhoidinum.

N-II - Preparations made from microorganisms capable of producing exotoxin E.g. Diptherinum.

N-III - Preparations made from purified toxins.

N-IV - Preparations made from microorganisms / viruses / clinical materials from human convalescents or diseased subjects e.g. Variolinum, Psorinum.

GENERAL METHOD FOR COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF STRAIN

1. Microbes available as pure organism, obtained from suitable clinical material from subjects suffering from the disease (comparatively virulent) are isolated, cultured and identified.

2. Their properties are studied for complete identification and they are lyophilized to ensure preservation and stability of characteristics.

3. The culture medium is prepared, most suitable for growth of the organism from which the homoeopathic nosode is to be prepared. Nutrient agar is usually recommended. In other instances, special solid culture medium containing proteins such as blood agar, serum agar are recommended. Freshly isolated organisms are recommended for use from which stock nosodes in Homeopathy are made. If this is impractical, the culture should be kept below 5?C so that they retain their full antigenic value. Stock cultures are most often maintained in lyophilized state. Repeated sub-cultures of a strain degenerates and lowers its antigenic value and is not recommended.

4. Unless otherwise specified, the culture is allowed to incubate for 24 hours at 37?C. At the end of incubation, the microorganisms are harvested under aseptic condition by pouring sterile isotonic salt solution on the solid media and then shaking or scraping until all the microorganisms have been suspended. If scraping is necessary, removal of culture medium is avoided. 5. The suspension is then centrifuged at 10,000 r.p.m. for 30 minutes, supernatant fluid is discarded and bacterial pellets are resuspended in 0.9 Pecent aqueous sodium chloride solution, shaken well and centrifuged again. 6. The suspension of bacteria is examined again for purity. It is essential that the purity of the strain is maintained during incubation and handling. Purity is checked at different stages. In case of contamination, the lot is rejected and a fresh strain is used. After 24 hours of growth, colony is re-examined for checking the characteristics and purity of the strain. The culture is then taken up in 0.9 Pecent aqueous sodium chloride solution.

STRENGTH

The growth is suspended again in isotonic solution, shaken to break up clumps and to make a uniform suspension. Number of bacteria in each ml. of suspension is adjusted to 20 billion viable cells per milliliter (2 ? 1010). This forms the original stock in case of drugs of groups N-I and N-II. For N-III and N-IV, the strength of 1X should be 1 part of the pure material in 10 parts of the suspending / diluting material.

PREPARATION OF NOSODES IN HOMEOPATHY:


* GROUP N-I

Bacteriolysis of the suspension containing 20 billion viable cells / ml. in distilled water is carried out by a sonicator till most of the bacterial cells are ruptured. The material is centrifuged at 10,000 r.p.m. for 30 minutes. The supernatant is filtered through seitz filter and the cell free extract containing endotoxin is treated with equal volume of strong alcohol. This strength is sealed in separate ampoules and is labeled as primary-stock-nosode. This serves as 1X for preparation of homoeopathic dilutions. This is preserved at 4-6?C.

* GROUP N-II

The toxigenicity of the strain is established before use. The suspension having 20 billion viable cells / ml. is mixed with equal volume of strong alcohol and sealed under aseptic conditions. It is labeled as primary-stock-nosode, as 1X. This should be preserved between 4-10?C. further attenuations are made in dispensing alcohol in the ratio 1:9. This must comply with test for sterility before being issued.

* GROUP N-III

Preparations are made by trituration in lactose with drug strength 1/10. Attenuation upto 6X is kept in sealed ampoules and stored in conditions prescribed under individual monograph.

* GROUP N-IV

Preparations are made by Hahnemannian method of trituration, Class IX. Attenuations upto 6X are stored between 4-6?C.

NOTES ON NOSODES IN HOMEOPATHY:


1. Centrifuge speed in all the above operations should not be below 10,000 r.p.m. The operation should be for 30 minutes or till complete separation in a refrigerated centrifuge.

2. The supernatant liquid should be filtered with seitz filter or membrane filter.

3. No chemicals, antiseptic or bacteriostatics should be mixed at any stage of operation with the material. In cases where normal saline solution is used, full care should be taken to completely remove the same before attenuation.

4. Preservation of all products and potencies below 6X should be done in a refrigerator between 4 -6?C.

5. Live organisms should be handled with care and following aseptic conditions.

6. Bacterial count means total number of organisms per milliliter (live or dead).

7. As far as possible the substance used in original proving should be taken as the starting raw material.

8. To check the hygienic condition of the laboratory plate, count should be done from time to time.

9. Test of sterility should be made before issue of any nosode, 6X or below for therapeutic use or for manufacture of higher attenuations.

10. All potencies below 3X of Group N-I, N-II and N-III should bear date of manufacture and a life period of six months from the date of manufacture.

Some of the nosodes are questionable, for example:

* Ambra grisea - it is not clear whether it is a healthy or unhealthy discharge of the sperm whale. Hence whether nosode or sarcode.

* Malaria officinalis - it is not a discharge but called vegetable nosode, as it is the swamp mire that is potentized.

* Bacteria and fungus are animals or plants in their own right. They are labeled as nosodes, as they are pathological to other beings.

Most of the nosodes listed below are not listed in the pharmacopoeia, hence standardization is suspect.

1. Agaricus Muscaris - entire fresh fungus found in dry pinewoods.

2. Ambra Grisea - morbid secretion from the liver of Spermaceti Whale (Physeter Macrocephalus). It is extracted from the rectum of the whale, found floating on the sea along the coasts of Madagascar and Sumatra.

3. Anthracinum- lysate obtained without addition of antiseptic from the liver of rabbit suffering from Anthrax.

4. Anti-Colibacillary- purified form of stock serum anti-colibacillary of caprine origin, made from goats immunized with E.coli.

5.Boletus Laricis- prepared from dried fungus Purging Agaric / Larch Boletus.

6.Botulinum- Clostridium Botulinum toxin made from putrefied pork.

7.Brucella Melintensis- a filtrate of a 21 days old culture of the microbe of undulating fever.

8. Calculus bilialis

9. Calculus renalis- prepared from renal calculus.

10. Cholesterinum - prepared from gall stone.

11. Colibacillinum

12. Diphtherinum- diphtheria toxin; diphtheric membranes of a patient.

13. D.T.-T.A.B.- mixed vaccine of antidiphtheric, antitetanic and antitypho - paratyphoid.

14. Eberthinum- prepared from culture of mixture of many stocks of Salmonella typhi.

15. Enterococcinum- stocks of Streptococcus faecalis.

16. Flavus- prepared from Neisseria pharangis.

17. Gonotoxinum- prepared from anti Gonococcic vaccine.

18. Hippomanes- prepared from a sticky mucoid substance of urinous odour found in the amniotic fluid of the mare. It is also found attached to the membrane of the foetal organ of the mare in last month of pregnancy.

19. Hippozaenium- lysate from the glander of horse.

20. Homarus

21. Hydrophobinum (Lyssin)- lysate of saliva taken from a rabid dog.

22. Influenzinum - stock prepared by Pasteur Institute especially for homoeopathic uses.

(a)Influenzinum virus A

(b)Influenzinum virus B

23. Leprominum

24. Leprum

25. Leptospira- lysate of Leptospira ictero-haemorrhagie

26. Leusinum (Syphilinum)- prepared from serosity of Trepanoma pallidum of syphilitic chancres.

27. Malandrinum- lysate from exudates of the horse malandra: discharge of eczema in the fold of the knee of horse.

28. Malaria Officinalis- prepared from mire taken during dryness of a malarial marsh.

29. Medorrhinum- purulent urethral secretion taken during the period of discharge infected with Neisseria Gonorrhoeae.

30. Melitagrinum- nosode of Eczema capitis

31. Meningococcinum- prepared from stocks of Neisseria Meningitidis.

32. Monilia Albicans- lysate of culture of Monilia albicans

33. Morbillinum- from exudate of mouth and pharynx of measles affected patients

34. Mucor Mucedo- lysate obtained by isolating and transplanting the mushroom Mucor Mucedo from the medium of culture.

35. Mucotoxin

36. Nectrianinum- nosode of Cancer of trees.

37. Oscillococcinum- autolysate filtered from liver and heart of a duck.

38. Osteo Arthritis Nosode (O.A.N.)- synovial fluid of articulations especially knee and hip of osteoarthritic patients.

39. Ourlianum- lysate from the saliva of a patient suffering from mumps.

40. Paratyphoidinum- prepared from cultures from mixture of different stocks of Paratyphoidinum bacilli.

41. Pertussinum- lysate from expectoration of patient suffering from whooping cough.

42. Pneumococcinum- Diplococcus pneumoniae found in saliva

43. Pneumotoxin- prepared from Diplococcus lanceolatus.

44. Psorinum- lysated stock obtained from serosity of furrows of itch of an unterated patient.

45. Pulmo anaphylacticus

46. Putrescinum

47. Pyrarara- lard of Pyrarara, a fish of the Amazon river.

48. Pyrogenum- prepared originally from decomposition of meat of beef.

49. Rheumatoid Arthritis Nosode (R.A.N)- prepared from synovial fluid of knee afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis

50. Sanguisuga- prepared from leech.

51. Scarlatinum- lysate from the scabs of a patient suffering from scarlatina.

52. Secale Cornutum- prepared from the fungus Claviceps purpura.

53. Serum of Yersin- from the anti-pest serum obtained from animals that have been immunized by means of live or killed cultures of Yersinia pestis.

54. Septicaeminum - prepared from septic abscess.

55. Sinusitisinum

56. Staphylococcinum- lysate of culture of many stocks of Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus.

57. Staphylotoxinum- antitoxins of staphylococcus.

58. Streptococcinum- lysate obtained from stock of streptococcus.

59. Streptoenterococcinum- lysate of culture of strepto-enterococcus.

60. Tetanotoxinum - dilution of tetanic toxin.

61. Toxoplasma Gondii - lysate of Toxoplasma Gondii.

62. Ustilago Maydis- prepared from a fungus growing on the Indian corn.

63. Usnea Barbata - prepared from lichen infecting soft maple.

64. Vaccin attenu bili

65. Vaccinotoxinum- prepared from anti-variolic vaccine.

66. Vaccinonum- prepared from the lymph of cowpox.

67. Variolinum- lysate obtained from the serosity of smallpox pustule.

68. Verriculum- prepared from warts.

69. Yersin (Pestinum)- nosode of plague.

CARCINOSINS NOSODES IN HOMEOPATHY:


70. Epitheliomine - extract of epithelioma.

71. Schirrinum- carcinoma schirrus (stomach).

72. Onkolysine- from a stock of Onkomyxa Neojormans.

73. Carcinosin-hepatica-metastat

74. Carcinosin laryngis

75. Carcinosin adenopapillary

76. Carcinosin adeno-stom- from adenocarcinoma of stomach.

77. Carcinosin adeno-vesica- papillary adenocarcinoma of bladder.

78. Carcinosin pulmonale- pulmonary cancer.

79. Carcinosin Schirr-mammae- schhirus of mammae.

TUBERCULINUMS ARE NOSODES IN HOMEOPATHY:


80. Tuberculinum avis- prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis aviaire.

81. Tuberculinum bovinum- prepared from the pus of tuberculosis abscess.

82. Tuberculinum Koch- culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

83. Tuberculinum Marmoreck- obtained from horses vaccinated by the filtrates of young cultures of Tuberculosis bacilli.

84. Tuberculinum laricus

85. Tuberculinum residuum Koch

86. Bacillinum Burnett- from the sputum of tuberculosis patients containing the bacteria.

87. Bacillinum testium- prepared from the testicle of tuberculosis patient.

88. Diluted B.C.G.- from vaccine B.C.G.

OTHER NOSODES

89. Actinomyces

90. Adenoidum

91. Arteriosclerosis

92. Bacillus pyocyanaeus

93. Bilharzia

94. Brucella melitensis

95. Cysticercosis

96. Egg vaccine

97. Epihysterinum

98. Framboesinum

99. Haffkine

100. Osseinum

101. Ringworm

SARCODES IN HOMEOPATHY:


Sarcodes are preparations from the secretions of healthy organisms, healthy animal tissues and secretions.

They may be considered to belong to the animal kingdom. Secretions of poisonous animals and venoms are classified under animal kingdom. Hormonal secretions and endocrine and exocrine glands, as also secretions of mammary glands may be put under sarcodes in Homeopathy.

* Adrenalin (secretion of medulla of supra-renal gland)

* Adrenocorticotrophin (from anterior pituitary gland of pigs)

* Aorta

* Arteria

* Bulbinum

* Cerebellum

* Cerebellum cortex

* Cholesterinum

* Cholinum

* Colon

* Colostrum

* Conjunctiva

* Corpus luteum

* Corticotropinum

* Cortisone (steroid hormone from adrenal cortex of man)

* Diaphragma

* Discus invertebralis

* D.N.A.

* Duodenum

* Fel tauri (ox gall)

* Fel vulpis (fox gall)

* Fibrinum

* Folliculinum

* Hemoglobinum

* Hypothalamus

* Insulin (beta cells of Islet of Langerhans of pancreas)

* Labyrinthinum

* Lac caninum

* Lac felinum

* Lac vaccinum

* Liquor amnii

* Luteinum

* Lymphatica

* Mamma

* Meconium

* Medulla ossea

* Medulla spinalis

* Mucosa nasalis

* Myocardium

* Nervus auditorius

* Neurinum

* Oophorinum (ovarian extract)

* Orchitinum (testicular extract)

* Pancreatinum (extract from pancreas of beef)

* Parathyroid gland

* Pepsinum (enzyme produced from stomach of sheep or calf)

* Pituitaria glandula

* Pituitaria glandula anterior

* Pituitaria glandula posterior (posterior pituitary gland of sheep)

* Placenta

* Placenta suis

* Prostata

* Pulmo

* Pulmo vulpis

* Retina

* R.N.A.

* Secretinum

* Serotoninum

* Thyroidinum (healthy thyroid tissue of sheep or calf)

* Thyroiodinum

SELF ASSESSMENT

* What are nosodes? Discuss classification and preparation of nosodes in detail.

* What are sarcodes in Homeopathy? Explain with examples

QUIZ

1. An example of plant nosode is

(a) Syphilinum

(b) Secale cornutum

(c) Stramonium

(d) Spongia tosta

2. Psorinum belongs to

(a) Group N-I

(b) Group N-II

(c) Group N-III

(d) Group N-IV

3. An example of sarcode, prepared from healthy endocrine gland is

(a) Thyroidinim

(b) Fel tauri

(c) Anthracinum

(d) Medorrhinum

4. All potencies below 3X of Group N-I, N-II and N-III should bear a life period of

(a) Three months from the date of manufacture

(b) Six months from the date of manufacture

(c) Three years from the date of manufacture

(d) Unlimited life period

ANSWERS: 1 (b); 2 (d); 3 (a); 4 (b).

5 comments:

  1. I really like your blog and i really appreciate the excellent quality content you are posting here for free for your online readers. thanks peace claudia.

    ReplyDelete
  2. I really like your blog and i really appreciate the excellent quality content you are posting here for free for your online readers. thanks peace claudia.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Nice & informative , kindly include more information on Sercodes , Hormones & Suis Sercodes

    Thanks Dr.pritam Das (Kolkata)

    ReplyDelete
  4. Cover most important Nosodes to treat Genital hopeless ailments and clear address to get them immediately, both are lacking in your information.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Dear Dr.,Thanks for your feed back, I will invite doctors to write on nosodes which help in sexual disorders.

    ReplyDelete

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