Dec 1, 2011

Ignatia amara

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Ignatia amara
 There's a blush for won't, and a blush for shan't,
And a blush for having done it;
There's a blush for thought and a blush for naught,
And a blush for just begun it.
There's a sigh for yes, and a sigh for no,
And a sigh for I can't bear it!
O what can be done, shall we stay or run,
Or cut the sweet apple and share it?
[Keats, 'Sharing Eve's Apple']
Strychnos ignatii. Ignatia amara. St Ignatius bean. N.O. Loganiaceae.
CLASSIFICATION The Loganiaceae is a diverse family of trees, shrubs and climbers. The family is found in both hemispheres, especially in the warm regions of the tropics. As a source of timber, of ornamentals, and of some lethal poisons, notably strychnine, the family is important to Man. It is a very mixed family, probably containing several distinct groups which are no more related to each other's than to parts of other families. There are differences of opinion concerning the taxonomic limitations of the family. A broad definition includes some 30 genera and about 800 species - classified into ten tribes - whereas a conservative view would count only 7 or 8 genera and about 150 species. Most of the chemical work has been concentrated on the tribes Gelsemineae and Strychneae, esp. the latter for the importance of the poisonous alkaloids of both African and South American species of Strychnos.
Ignatia girl
GENUS "A genus represented in both hemispheres, Strychnos has approximately 200 species; 60 are American, 43 of which occur in the humid tropics of South America, esp. in the western Amazonia. Some are trees [Strychnos nux-vomica of India and Sri Lanka] but the American species are climbing shrubs, usually stout lianas. The fruits of many are edible. The bark of more than 12 species enters into the preparation of curares in South America. Strychnos, an alkaloid-rich genus, is sometimes treated as a member of a separate family, Strychnaceae."1
SPECIES Strychnos ignatii is a large woody climbing shrub with long, twining, smooth branches and very long, drooping flowers which are white in colour and scented like jasmine. The fruits are the size and shape of a medium-sized pear, and the seeds are about one inch long, and extremely bitter. It is indigenous to the Philippine Islands, and was first brought to the notice of Portuguese merchants by Spanish Jesuit Fathers, who named the tree after the founder of the Jesuit Order - Ignatius Loyola. The natives of the Philippine Islands were dimly aware of the medicinal value of the seeds, for they were in the habit of wearing them as amulets for the prevention and cure of all kinds of diseases. Ignatia is closely related to Strychnos nux-vomica, but it contains one-third more strychnine than is found in S. nux-vomica, and less of the alkaloid brucine.2 Particularly interested in natural science, the Jesuit priest Georg Kamel [Latinized as Camellus] [1661-1706] collected plants in both the Philippines and China and introduced the St Ignatius bean to Europe. The seeds of S. ignatii are, probably, identical with the Igasur or Nuces vomicae mentioned by Serapion. Alston states that the seed came into the Dutch shops about the latter end of the 17th century. Ignatia amara is called upas radja, 'royal poison', in Malaysia, where it was used as an arrow poison as well as for murder. It was in the St Ignatius bean that the French chemists Caventou and Pelletier discovered strychnine in 1818.
EFFECTS "The action and uses of ignatia are very similar to those of nux vomica, but more energetic. It appears also to possess an influence over the nervous system of a tonic and stimulating character, not belonging to nux vomica or strychnine. It is never a remedy for conditions of excitation of the nervous system, but its key-note is atony; it is the remedy for nervous debility, and all that that term implies, being one of the best of nerve stimulants and nerve tonics. It was early recognized in this work as a remedy for nervous debility, amenorrhoea, chlorosis, etc. As a rule, the dose of ignatia administered is too large, a depressing headache often resulting from its immoderate use."3
IGNATIUS The naming of this Strychnos species was in the nature of a prophecy, says Dorothy Shepherd, continuing with: "Just as Ignatius Loyola was a messenger, a signpost to prepare the way for the ascent of the soul, so the properties latent in the seed of the Ignatia prepare and smoothe the way for the mental and spiritual advancement on the upward path of the soul of man. All trees carry within them something of the life of the spirit, the breath of God the Father. Some conserve more deeply the life forces of the Divine Father, and Ignatia is one of these. The priest who gave it its name had a deep intuitive insight into the properties of this tree, as to its ability to heal the soul and spirit of man."4 Ignatius Loyola [1491-1556], the founder of the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, was a striking personality. At an early age he attended the royal court from time to time. "This was perhaps the time of his greatest dissipation and laxity. He was affected and extravagant about his hair and dress, consumed with the desire of winning glory, and would seem to have been sometimes involved in those darker intrigues, for which handsome young courtiers too often think themselves licensed. How far he went on the downward course is still unproved. The balance of evidence tends to show that his own subsequent humble confessions of having been a great sinner should not be treated as pious exaggerations. ... In 1517 a change for the better seems to have taken place; Velásquez died and Ignatius took service in the army. The turning-point of his life came in 1521. While the French were besieging the citadel of Pampeluna, a cannon ball, passing between Ignatius' legs, tore open the left calf and broke the right shin. With his fall the garrison lost heart and surrendered, but he was well treated by the French and carried on a litter to Loyola, where his leg had to be rebroken and reset, and afterwards a protruding end of the bone was sawn off, and the limb, having been shortened by clumsy setting, was stretched out by weights. All these pains were undergone voluntarily, without uttering a cry or submitting to be bound. ... In order to divert the weary hours of convalescence, he asked for the romances of chivalry, his favourite reading, but there were none in the castle, and instead they brought him the lives of Christ and of the saints. He read them in the same quasi-competitive spirit with which he read the achievements of knights and warriors. ... He would then wander off into thoughts of chivalry, and service to fair ladies, especially to those of high rank, whose name is unknown. Then all of a sudden, he became conscious that the after-effect of these dreams was to make him dry and dissatisfied, while the ideas of falling into rank among the saints braced and strengthened him, and left him full of joy and peace. ... One night, as he lay awake, 'he saw clearly', so says his autobiography, 'the image of Our Lady with the Holy Child Jesus', which eventually left him with such a loathing of his past sins ... that never again was there the least consent to any carnal thought. ... When Ignatius left Loyola, he wished to rival all the saints had done in the way of penance. ... He retired into a cavern for prayer, austerities, and contemplation, while he lived on alms. But here, instead of obtaining greater peace, he was consumed with the most troublesome scruples. At one time he was violently tempted to end his miseries by suicide, on which he resolved neither to eat nor to drink, until God granted him the peace which he desired. ... [In 1523, he set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.] ... The voyage was fully as painful as he had conceived. Poverty, sickness, exposure, fatigue, starvation, dangers of shipwreck and capture, prisons, blows, contradictions, these were his daily lot. ... [After his return to Spain], he resolved to study, in order to be of greater help to others. To studies he therefore gave eleven years, more than a third of his remaining life. ... The labours of Ignatius for others involved him in trials without number [... he was beaten senseless ... constantly harassed ... imprisoned for two months ... indignified ... deserted twice by his followers]."5 In 1534 he gathered a group of six associates, who together took vows of poverty and chastity at Montmartre, Paris, in 1534. Ignatius had suggested 'The Company of Jesus' as the title of their brotherhood, but in the Latin Bull of foundation they were called 'Societas Jesu', while adverseries named them Jesuits, applied as a term of reproach. The latter term had been used in the 15th century to describe in scorn someone who cantingly interlarded his speech with repetitions of the Holy Name. Pope Paul III received the 'Company of Jesus', in 1538,, and Ignatius drew up the rule of life for a new religious order, which was approved by Paul in 1540. In April, 1541, Ignatius was elected the first general of the Societas Jesu. By the time of Ignatius's death in 1556, the society had spread widely and had over a thousand members. Ignatius and his order had become a major factor in the Counter-Reformation. Ignatius was canonized in 1622 and is the patron of spiritual retreats. His feast day is July 31.6
PROVINGS •• [1] Hahnemann - 3 [male] provers; method: unknown.
•• [2] Jörg - 13 [male] provers, 1822; method: repeated doses of tincture or of powder prepared by triturating the crushed bean with an equal weight of sugar of milk.
[1] Evans Schultes and Raffauf, The Healing Forest. [2] Shepherd, A Physician's Posy. [3] King's American Dispensatory. [4] Shepherd, ibid. [5] The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII. [6] Biography of St. Ignatius of Loyola; St. Ignatius Loyola Catholic Church.
MIND. NERVOUS SYSTEM. Cerebro-spinal axis. Sensorium. * Right side. Left side.
Worse: EMOTIONS [GRIEF; anger; WORRY; fright]. Air [open; cold]. Odours. Touch. Coffee. Tobacco. CONSOLATION. Slight touch. Winter. Walking fast. Morning; on waking.
Better: Position [change of; lying on painful side]. Profuse urination. If alone. Pressure; hard pressure. Warmth. Swallowing.
Main symptoms
• "Whatever analogy may be perceived between the positive effects of Ignatia and Nux vomica, there is also a great difference, since the state of mind to which one is adapted would be very unsuitable to the other. Ignatia should not be given on occasions of passion, eagerness, or violence; but in those in which are displayed sudden changes from high to low spirits, or other conditions denoting Ignatia, supposing that the accompanying symptoms are such as it would produce. Even in a high state of development, Ignatia is an excellent remedy in the case of persons deeply offended, who have no disposition to violent anger or revenge, but who brood over their vexation and distress, and are continually tormented with the annoying recollection of the offence or injury they have received; consequently, it is applicable to all morbid states of mind resulting from these causes. [Hahnemann]
M High IDEALS and EXPECTATIONS - strong DRIVE to make them true [critical; intolerant of contradiction; expects others, esp. partner, to be perfect].
Strong sense of [inner] DUTY.
Competence, quickness and refinement used to achieve goals in outer world.
• "Woman wants to be equal to man." [Vithoulkas]
Conflicts with inner state.
INNER CONFLICTS [delusion he had committed a crime, is criticised, being doomed, has neglected duty, has done wrong].
M DISAPPOINTMENTS excite inner sensitiveness, but tries to keep it in.
< CONSOLATION. Leading to CONTRADICTORY and ALTERNATING STATES. • "Strong polarity of expression and repression. Often open on outside, but really secretive with emotions. Finds it hard to cry. Will either be hysterical, tearing hair out, etc., or will show no emotion. Theatricality - prone to exaggeration."1 • "Incredible changeableness of disposition, at one time he jokes and jests, at another he is lachrymose [alternately every 3, 4 hours]." [Hahnemann] M Involuntary SIGHING. M EMOTIONAL outbursts very quickly controlled: only tears in eyes, short sobs, sighing, constant swallowing, twitching around mouth, bites inside of cheek, etc. M Tendency to EAT AWAY stresses [esp. anger and grief]. May become fat; or have ravenous appetite [bulimia] alternating with anorexia. • "Empty sinking in stomach not relieved by eating." [Boger] M Bitterness. • "Those Ignatia women who have had particularly hard lives tend to become tough and bitter. The tougher they get, the more masculine they become. Still craving approval in some form, and yet no longer daring to be emotionally vulnerable, the tough Ignatia woman seeks to impress by dominating others. She is bossy, extremely touchy, and she has a temper that makes strong men tremble with fear. In order to feel important the tough Ignatia becomes ambitious, and sets her sights upon social approval. She becomes a determined career woman, battling to beat men in their own worlds of competition and intellectualism. The more masculinised Ignatia becomes, the more she retreats into her intellect. Here she seeks to impress by becoming highly intellectual. Ignatia academics are often very proud of their credentials, and will make the most of the letters after their names. It makes them feel important, which is the next best thing to feeling loved." [Bailey] M Exaggeration. • "Ignatia is one of the most dramatic of types. Many Ignatia women use this to good effect as actresses. ... To be dramatic, one needs an audience, and Ignatia learns from early childhood to use her audience to win love and approval, or to chastise for her unhappiness. Even when she is happy the insecure Ignatia dramatises her feelings in an attempt to get a response from whomever she is with, a positive response that says to her, 'Yes, you are wonderful, and I love you.' The insecure Ignatia boasts about her happiness, exaggerating it to make her appear special, and hence worthy of love. When she receives praise, or even agreement, she will become rapturous, and will giggle with delight. [Giggling is very characteristic of Ignatia.]." [Bailey] G SPASMODIC and ERRATIC symptoms. G Aversion to OPEN AIR. > WARM stove.
G Perspiration only or mainly on FACE, esp. during EATING.
G Changeable appetite.
• "Appetite appeared good, but on attempting to eat felt as if already satisfied."
• "Stomach felt alternately full and empty, latter feeling accompanied by bulimia." [Hughes]
G FRUITS [craving or aversion].
Likes acid food.
G Loathing of TOBACCO SMOKE.
> RUNNING. > Walking FAST.
G > WHILE eating.
G • "Symptoms pass off with a profuse flow of urine." [Boger]
G Pains in small SPOTS.
P Headache ends in yawning and vomiting.
P Sensation of LUMP in throat.
P [Nervous] cough < coughing. [1] Wallace, Remedy Notes. Rubrics Mind Admonition, even kindly, < [1]. Affectionate [2]. Ailments from loss of position [2]. Anger, from hearing reproaches to others [2] Audacity [3]. Brooding [3]. Full of cares [3]. Dancing > mental symptoms [2]. Delusions, being laughed at and mocked at [1], of having neglected his duty [1], that friends are talking about her [1], that she is breaking her vow [1/1]. Feigning to be sick [1]. Silent grief, from disappointed love [3]. Hurry during menses [1], during mental exertion [1]. Loquacity, alternating with taciturnity [1]. Mental symptoms alternating with physical symptoms [2]. Monomania [2]. Secretive [2]. Sighing, before menses [2]. Sympathetic [2]. Weeping, when alone [1], cannot weep though sad [3], from contradiction [1], involuntary [3], when refused anything [1], when telling of her sickness [1].
Congestion, when spoken to harshly [1/1]. Pain, increasing gradually but ceasing suddenly [2], from strong odours [1], > profuse urination [2].
Pain, > profuse urination [2]. Photophobia, during menses [1].
Colours, white, flickering [2]. Zigzags, fiery [1], flickering [1].
Impaired, except for the the human voice [1/1].
Distortion, when speaking [2/1]. Twitching around mouth [2].
Appetite, ravenous, prevents sleep [2]; wanting, during menses [2]. Emptiness, > lying down [1], before menses [2], with sighing [3/1]. Sinking sensation, > deep breathing [1/1].
Pain, after sugar [1]; cramping, from coffee [1].
Cramps, calves, when sitting [1]. Heat, hands, while lying on back [1/1]; feet, while lying on back [1/1].
Cruelty [2]. Deliberations [2]. Excelling in mental work [2].
Chilliness, one side, during headache [3/1]. Uncovering, undressing > [1].
Itching, when overheated [1], when pain ceases [1].
Faintness, from odours [1].
Aversion: [3]: Fruit; smoking. [2]: Meat; milk; tobacco; tobacco, odour of; warm food; wine. [1]: Alcohol; brandy; bread; drinks; cooked food; sour.
Desire: [3]: Cold drinks. [2]: Cold food; fruit; sour. [1]: Bread; bread, rye; bread and butter; butter; charcoal; cheese; cheese, strong; coal; cranberries; fruit, acid; indigestible things; pickles; raw, uncooked food; tomatoes; tomatoes, raw; vinegar.
Worse: [3]: Coffee; sweets. [2]: Cold drinks; cucumbers; onions; rice. [1]: Beer; bread, black; cold food; dry food; fruit; milk; spices.
Better: [3]: Coffee. [2]: Hot food. [1]: Cold drinks; cold food; raw, uncooked food; vinegar.


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