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Thursday, January 7, 2010

ADONIS VERNALIS AND ADRENALIN:

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ADONIS VERNALIS

SYNONYM ---- Adonis vernalis, Adonis apennina.

COMMON NAME ----- Spring Adonis. False hellebore. Yellow
Pheasant's Eye.

NATURAL ORDER ------ Ranunculaceae.

HABITAT----- A native of Northern Europe and Southern
Siberia.


PREPARATION---- Infusion or tincture of fresh plant, an extract,
Adonidin.

HISTORICAL DOSE -------- Tincture and all potencies, five to ten
drops of the tincture.

PROVER ------

Name after Adonis of the classics, one of Aphrodite's lovers, whose blood is supposed to have stained the petals of the Pheasant's Eye. Adonis is associated with the seasonal renewal of plant life. Vernalis means 'of spring' - the time of flowering.

Adonis ['adon' is the Phoenician word for 'master'] was the Phoenician god of a decaying and reemerging Nature. In Greek mythology he is a boy of exceptional beauty who was seduced by Aphrodite. The offspring of a love affair between King Cinyras of Cyprus and his daughter Myrrha, Adonis was born from the trunk of the myrrh tree into which his mother had been changed by the gods. When he was killed by a wild boar while hunting, the goddess persuaded Zeus to allow him leave the underworld in the spring and summer and stay with Aphrodite, after which he had to return to the underworld until the following spring.

Adonis, a plant very nearly allied to the Anemone, is indigenous to
South-east Europe, but is sometimes found wild in Western Europe and England. Any soil will suit it, though it prefers limy soil: it blossoms more freely in the sunshine, but will also flourish in shade. The short, powerful, blackish-brown rootstock contains both fertile and sterile shoots. During the flowering period [April-May] a single lemon-coloured flower appears at the top of the stem. Ants are responsible for dispersing the seeds.

This very toxic plant contains more than 10 cardiac glycosides, including adonitoxine, cymarine and strophantidine. The effect is similar to that of Digitalis, but Adonis has a milder effect, and its toxins do not accumulate as much in the body. Poisonings of humans and animals are rare; this is because the sap of the fresh plant is corrosive and tastes bitter. It has been prescribed instead of digitalis, and sometimes succeeds where Digitalis has failed, esp. when there is kidney disease. It is, however, less certainly beneficial in valvular disease than digitalis.

Like Convallaria, Adonis is a popular heart remedy in Russia. It has not been proved, but the indications for its use have been defined by experience as follows: Rapid and feeble action of the heart; dropsy; scanty urine with albumen and casts. Valvular disease and cardiac asthma. There is no record of its use in the potencies.

Cash gave great relief to "a water-logged patient of seventy-four" with mitral regurgitation, with one-grain doses of Adonidin at eight-hour intervals, after failure of Arsenicum and Digitalis. Urinary secretion rose from half a pint to 2.5 pints in twenty-four hours. Breathing was relieved; sleep returned.

Hale reports of a beautiful cure in a labourer suffering from a chronic valvular disease of the heart with dilatation under the action of Adonis. The heart became diminished in size, the congestion of the lungs disappeared, the oedema of the legs vanished, the palpitation of the heart and the dyspnoea stopped.

SPHERE OF ACTION---- HEART. Joints. Epigastrium. Kidneys.


CLINICAL---- Albuminuria. Ascites. Cardiac dropsy. Heart disorders.
Hydrothorax.


PATHOLOGICAL ACTION ---- Adonis first excites the inhibitory nerves in the heart at the central end, increasing arterial tension, and later paralyzes the peripheral end of the vagus. It also excites the accelerating nerves, so that there occurs an interference between the two systems of cardiac innervation, resulting in a feeble and irregular heart action and finally in a total paralysis of the motor nerve supply of the heart. It also causes diuresis. The action of Adonis is rapid and not cumulative.

HEAD ---- Vertigo < on rising turning the head quickly or lying down; with palpitation. Aching from occiput around temples to eyes. Scalp
feels tight. Eyes dilated.

MOUTH ---- Tongue sore feels scalded. No thirst.

STOMACH ---- Faint feeling in epigastric region with vertigo > out of doors.

ABDOMEN ---- Heavy weight; bowels seems as if breaking < bending. faint feeling in epigastric region with vertigo better out of doors.

URINARY ---- Urging to urinate. Albuminuria; urine scanty oily pelicle on Urine.

RESPIRATION ---- Frequent desire to take a deep breath. Dyspnoea <
touching back. Dry tickling cardiac cough.

HEART ---- Weak fatty arrhythmic. Precordial pain palpitation and
Dyspnoea. Pulse rapid irregular. Arrhythmia. Mitral and aortic regurgitation. Chronic aortitis. Fatty heart pericarditis. Rheumatic Endocarditis. (Kalm.). Precordial pain, palpitations and dyspnea. Marked venous engorgement. Cardiac asthma. (Quebracho) Fatty heart. Myocarditis, irregular cardiac action, constriction and vertigo. Pulse rapid, irregular.

BACK ---- Spine and neck stiff; aching pain with tired feeling.

SKIN ---- Vesicles on the skin.

SLEEP ---- Sleeplessness with rambling thoughts or horrible dreams.


MODALITIES ---
Better from exertion. Worse from cold or lying down.

COMPARE

Arsenicum. Digitalis. Spigelia. Cactus. Aurum. Iodium. Lachesis. Crataegus.

Comparisons:
->Heart affections.

->Crataegus: Heart affections after severe infectious diseases.

->Kalmia: Rheumatic affections of the heart.

->Digitalis: Violent, but not very rapid palpitation; pulse small,
irregular, slow.

->Kali carbonicum: Attacks of palpitations taking away the breath; heart's action irregular, stormy or weak; mostly attended with stitches in the heart or through the scapulae.

->Spigelia: Palpitation at the slightest motion; pulse irregular; anguish
and constriction; left-sided headache.


Adonis is of special value in valvular disease and cardiac dropsy when there is a lowered vitality with feeble heart action and a slow, weak pulse, and especially if the kidneys are acting inefficiently. It is most useful when the compensation is failing, reminding us of Digitalis and often acting well when that drug fails or for any reason cannot be administered. Blackwood reports two cases in which Adonis assisted in establishing a compensatory hypertrophy, "one off aortic stenosis and the other of mitral regurgitation. The symptoms were oedema of the lower extremities, great dyspnoea, scanty urine and irregular pulse." He also recommends Adonis in "endocarditis when dilatation of the heart is taking place, as indicated by the diminished heart's action and the lowering of the blood pressure generally; as a result, the function of the kidney is lessened and marked dropsy appears." In cases of feeble, irregular heart action, with more or less dyspnoea, not dependent
upon organic disease, Adonis acts beautifully. It improves the tone of the heart muscle, increases the power of the contractions and regulates the pulse. Has been recommended in the treatment of epilepsy.


DURATION OF ACTION--




ADRENALINUM


SYNONUM ---- Adrenaline, Adren.

COMMON NAME---- Extract of Adrenal gland or suprarenal gland.

SOURCE ----- Sarcode.

PREPARATION ---- Tincture or triturition.

DOSE---- Hypodermically, 1-5 m. [1:1,000 solution, as chloride] diluted in water.Internally, 5-30 m. of 1:1,000 solution.
On account of its affinity for oxygen, the drug easily decomposes in watery and dilute acid solutions. The solution must be protected from air and light. It must not be too frequently repeated, owing to cardiac and arterial lesions. For homeopathic use 2x to 6x attenuation.

PROVER-----As yet we have but one proving, made in 1904 by students of the New York Homoeopathic College, under the direction of Dr. V. L. Getman and the following provers: M. W. Macduffie, W. G. LaField, G. H. Clapp, J. B. G. Custis, Jr., G. C. Birdsall, and R. C. Miller.

Its chemical formula is C3 H3 A2 O3 and it forms shining prismatic crystals, which melt at a temperature of 207c.; it is most soluble in warm water. It has a bitter taste, which leaves a sensation of numbness on the tip of the tongue.

In dilute acids it possesses a marked affinity for oxygen, and when exposed to the air it changes into oxyadrenalin which is poisonous, though not possessing the properties of Adrenalin. It is to this chemical change that constantly occurs in the tissues that the evanescent effect of the drug is due.

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION---- Adrenalin or Epinephrin, the active principle of the medulla of the suprarenal gland [cortical secretion not as yet isolated], is employed as a chemical messenger in the regulation of the activities of the body; in fact, its presence is essential to the activity of the sympathetic nerve. Adrenalin action on any part is the same as stimulation of the sympathetic nerve endings thereto. Local application [1:1, 000 solution] to mucous membranes promptly induces transient ischaemia, seen in a blanching, persisting several hours from conjunctival instillation. Its action is very prompt, efficient, evanescent, owing to rapid oxidation and therefore practically harmless, unless too frequently repeated, when atheroma and heart lesions - myocardial -
in animals have been reported. Arteries, heart, suprarenal bodies and
vasomotor system are prominently affected.

The main action of Adrenalin is stimulation of the sympathetic ending, notably the splanchnic area, causing constriction of peripheral arterioles, with resulting rise in blood pressure. This is especially observed in stomach, intestines; less in uterus, skin; nil in brain and lungs. Furthermore is noticed, slowing of pulse [medullary vagus stimulation], and strengthening of heartbeat [increased myocardial contractility], resembling Digitalis; increased glandular activity, glycosuria; depression of respiratory centre; contraction of muscular tissue of eye, uterus, vagina; relaxation of muscular tissue of stomach, intestines, bladder.

THERAPEUTIC USE--- Its chief therapeutic use depends on its vasoconstriction action; therefore a most powerful and prompt astringent and homeostatic; and invaluable in checking capillary haemorrhages from all parts, where local or direct application is feasible: nose, ear, mouth, throat, larynx, stomach, rectum,
uterus, bladder. Haemorrhagic condition not due to defective coagulation of the blood. Complete bloodlessness, ischaemia, may be induced with impunity. Locally, solutions [1:10,000 - 1:1,000] sprayed or applied on cotton have been very efficient in bloodless operations about the eye, nose, throat and larynx.

Congestion of the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, also hay fever, have been markedly alleviated by warm spray of Adrenalin chloride, 1:5,000. Here compare Hepar 1x, which will start up secretions and so facilitate drainage. Werlhoff's disease, hypodermically, 1:1,000. Externally, it has been used in neuritis, neuralgia, reflex pains, gout, rheumatism, as an ointment, 1-2 m. of [1:1,000] solution, along the nerve trunk at point of skin nearest its origin which could be reached [H. G. Carlton].


Therapeutically, Adrenalin has been suggested in acute congestion of the lungs, asthma, Grave's and Addison's diseases, arteriosclerosis, chronic aortitis, angina pectoris, haemophilia, chlorosis, hay fever, serum rashes, acute urticaria, etc. Dr. P. Jousset reports success in treating, homopathically, cases of angina and aortitis, subacute and chronic, when Adrenalin has been prescribed per os and in infinitesimal dose. The symptom guiding to this is Sensation of thoracic constriction & anguish. This, with vertigo, nausea and vomiting has been produced by the drug. Abdominal pain. Shock of heart failure during anaesthesia, as it causes very prompt rise of blood pressure by its action on nerve endings in the vessel wall.

MIND ---- Despondent and nervous. Apathy. Lack of interest in anything, no ambition, disinclination for mental work, absence of "grit." Aversion to mental work, cannot concentrate thoughts.

HEAD ---- Hot headache in left side, extending to right. Headache, worse by reading and in the morning with a feeling as though the eyes were strained. Frontal headache with congested nose and eyes. Burning heat in head. Headache extending all over head. Severe pain, better by pressure on the eyes. Headache with nausea and heat in face without redness. Neuralgic headaches. Brain feels swollen as though it was too large for skull. Flushes of heat in the evening over face and head.

EYES ---- Strained feeling as though he wanted to open them wide or press upon them. Pain in the right eye. Pressure on the eyes. Hyperemia of the conjunctiva. Aching in eyeballs, better by pressure and rubbing.

FACE ---- Feels flushed but is not red. Flushes of heat over face and head flushed throughout evening.

EARS ---- Aching in the left ear accompanies the headache, sharp pain in both ears at times. Itching and tickling in right ear, better by boring into ear with finger.

NOSE ---- Congested, full feeling in nose. Gelatinous mucus drops from the posterior sinuses, difficult to detach. On going out into the cold air had a copious, watery nasal discharge. Slight stuffiness in the nose with full feeling at the root of the nose.

MOUTH ---- Bad taste on waking. Mouth filled with dark brown mucus, which has nasty taste. Tongue coated white, red edge and tip. Tongue clean anteriorly, mouth dry. Tongue coated white at times posteriorly.

THROAT ---- Much hawking to clear throat. Vocal cords inflamed, laryngeal catarrh, profuse secretion from the pharyngeal glands of whitish gelatinous mucus which was difficult to loosen. Right side swollen and sore, red and inflamed, worse by swallowing.

STOMACH ---- Belching after meals. Sensation of nausea as though he would vomit. Pain in stomach passing from right to left, coming and going suddenly. Nausea before meals, though appetite is good when he once began to eat. Appetite increased. Ravenous hunger. Less thirst than usual. Thirst at times for large quantities increased in the evening.
Rumbling in the intestines, borborygmus.

RECTUM ---- Passage of foul flatus. Stool loose, brown, semi-solid, passed quickly with fetid odor. Sudden spluttering diarrhea, all over in a minute, followed with burning in anus.

KIDNEYS ---- Strong odor, hot and scalding, frequent, profuse, pale. Burning before and during urination. Sudden urgent desire to urinate. Amount of urine decreased, solids increased. Crystals of sodium oxalate increased while sodium urate appeared during the proving and was very prominent, no casts.

MALE ---- Sexual desire increased without erections. Erections, lascivious dreams all night causing waking from sleep. Emissions in early morning without any bad effects.

FEMALE ---- Leucorrhoea. Metrorrhagia, labor like pains during and after menses.

LUNGS ---- Cough from irritation in supra-sternal fossa. Expectoration of gelatinous mucus, which is hard to detach. Increase of respiratory movements, soon followed by suffocation and death from paralysis of medulla and pneumogastric.

LIMBS --- The rheumatic pains coming and going down leg. Arms and legs go to sleep easily, numbness and tingling from below upwards. Corns on the toes. Aching in limbs on waking in the morning, aching in the calves. Rheumatic pains in left elbow and little finger on waking. Legs tired and ache, especially in the calves and below the knees.
Ankles feel weak and tired. Painful swelling on first finger of right hand, resulting in a felon. Tired aching in arms and legs on waking. Dull pain in arms and legs.

SLEEP ---- Great sleepiness and drowsiness. Sleepy in evening and after a good night's sleep. Dullness and sleepiness from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m.

DURATION OF ACTION ----

LIST OF REFERENCES -----

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